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Polio is an acute viral disease, the severity of which ranges from infection without symptoms to nonspecific febrile illness, aseptic meningitis, paralytic disease and death. It is transmitted by direct contact.
The virus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The polio virus multiplies in the Central Nervous System and causes severe paralysis causing deformation of the limbs with muscle atrophy.
This pathology it can cause death if not treated properly. Polio is found throughout the world but is more prevalent in developing countries.
It is produced by polioviruses (genus of enteroviruses) type 1, 2 and 3: All of them cause paralysis, the most frequently isolated in cases of paralysis is type 1, often being responsible for epidemics. Type 3 is the least frequent.
It usually starts with a fever, which occurs 5 to 7 days before other symptoms. Extreme fatigue, muscle pain and muscle atrophy then appear causing flaccid, proximal and asymmetric paralysis and may even affect breathing and swallowing.
There are two forms of vaccine: the injectable SALK (inactivated virus) and the oral SABIN (live virus). Both require two doses (3 for children) at one month intervals, a booster after a year, and then every 10 years (5 years for children).
People exposed to the virus, either through infection or through immunization with the polio vaccine, develop immunity protective.
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